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How is oil drilled, transported and converted into gasoline

Crude oil is the lifeline to every existing industry in today’s world.

From two-wheelers, cars, trucks, trains, ships, aircraft and industries run on petroleum and its other forms.

The forms are gasoline, diesel, jet fuel and heating oil which comes from crude oil after the refining processes.

To face the increasing requirements all the oil companies are working hard in oil extraction.

The whole process includes drilling the ground where the oil is present and pumping the oil from the ground.

After pumping the process follows transporting, refining and delivering it to the customers.

Let have a brief look at the whole process.

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Oil Drilling

Before drilling the location of the oil field is very necessary.

The Geologists locate the oil fields with the help of seismic surveys.

Through these surveys, they verify the oil Presence and post a budget to ensure the extraction is economical.

Process Of Oil Drilling

The professionals drill the oil well with the help of an oil rig.

Here they use steel pipes to provide structural integrity to the drilling hole.

A Christmas tree structure on the well has many valves which help to regulate the pressure and control the oil flow.

The technicians collect the crude oil in the reservoirs and in this stage it is not useful.

l. It is sent to the refineries to make different products out of it.

Transportation

The most economical way of transporting crude oil from the wells is via pipelines. These pipelines are mostly underground and costly in nature.

The other way is taking the crude oil through large oil tankers via ships.

Refining

The refining process is necessary to change the oil density.

The refining process consists of three basic processes.

  • Distillation
  • Conversion
  • Alkylation

While these refining processes the oil goes through the desulfurization process.

This is done to remove the chemicals from the crude oil.

The distillation process uses heat to Separate petroleum from other crude products.

The crude tower has a different level of heating temperature.

  • At a temperature of  150 C, we get Gasoline
  • At 200 C we get Jet Fuel & Kerosene
  • Achieving  300 C we get Diesel Fuel
  • On getting 370 C, we have Industrial Fuel
  • At 400 C of temperature, we get Lubrication Oil, Paraffin Wax, and Asphalt.

Also, read: What Happens To An Engine Without Oil?

After these processes, the oils have to go Conversation and Blending Process.

The conversion undergoes three refinery procedures namely- the Coker, The Hydrocracker and the Fluidized Catalytic Cracker (FCC).

Gasoline or diesel from we get from crude oil it is sent with the Help of pipeline to the refinery terminals or the wholesalers and is ready for the consumer’s use.

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Ekster EU

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