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Automotive Suspension and Steering Systems | PDF

Automotive Suspension and Steering Systems | PDF

Classroom Manual for Automotive Suspension & Steering Systems

Contents

Chapter 1 

Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 

  • Introduction 2 
  • Occupational Safety and Health Act 2 
  • Shop Hazards 2 • Shop Safety Rules 3
  • Air Quality 5 
  • Shop Safety Equipment 6 
  • Shop Layout 9 • Safety in the Automotive Shop 10
  • General Shop Safety 10 
  • Personal Safety 11 • Electrical Safety 13 
  • Gasoline Safety 13
  • Fire Safety 14 
  • Vehicle Operation 15 
  • Housekeeping Safety 16 
  • Air Bag Safety 17
  • Lifting and Carrying 19 
  • Hand Tool Safety 20 • Lift Safety 21 
  • Hydraulic Jack and Safety Stand Safety 21 
  • Power Tool Safety 22 
  • Compressed-Air Equipment Safety 23 
  • Cleaning Equipment Safety and Environmental Considerations 23 
  • Hazardous Waste Disposal 26 
  • Case Study 29
  • Terms to Know 29 
  • Summary 30 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 31

Chapter 2 

Tools and Shop Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . .39

  • Using Suspension and Steering Equipment 39 
  • Measuring Systems 39 
  • Basic Diagnostic Procedure 41 
  • Suspension and Steering Tools 42 
  • Hydraulic Pressing and Lifting Equipment 55 
  • Suspension and Steering Service, Diagnostic, and Measurement Tools 59 
  • Employer and Employee Obligations 70 
  • National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) Certification 72 
  • Service Manuals 74 
  • Case Study 80 
  • Terms to Know 81 
  • Summary 81 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 82 

Chapter 3 

Wheel Bearing and Seal Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 

  • Diagnosis of Bearing Defects 89 
  • Service and Adjustment of Tapered Roller Bearing-Type Wheel Bearings 90 
  • Wheel Hub Unit Diagnosis 97 
  • Front Drive Axle Diagnosis 99 
  • Drive Axle Removal 99 
  • Special Procedures for Drive Axle Removal 100 
  • Front Wheel Bearing Hub Unit Removal and Replacement 102 
  • Rear-Axle Bearing and Seal Service, Rear-Wheel-Drive Cars 104 
  • Case Study 108 
  • Terms to Know 108 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 108 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 110 

Chapter 4

Tire and Wheel Servicing and Balancing . . . . . .120 

  • Tyre Noises and Steering Problems 120 
  • Tire Rotation 122 
  • Tyre and Wheel Service Precautions 124 
  • Wheel Rim Service 130 
  • Tire Remounting Procedure 131 
  • Diagnosing and Servicing Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems 132 
  • Tire and Wheel Runout Measurement 138 
  • Tread Wear Measurement 140 
  • Preliminary Wheel Balancing Checks 141 
  • Tire Inflation Pressure 142 
  • Static and Dynamic Wheel Balance Procedure 143 
  • Electronic Wheel Balancers with Lateral Force Measurement (LFM) and Radial Force Variation Capabilities 145 
  • On Car Wheel Balancing 149 
  • Vibration Diagnosis 150 
  • Case Study 156 
  • Terms to Know 156 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 157 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 158 

Chapter 5 

Shock Absorber and Strut Diagnosis and Service. . .171 

  • ShockAbsorber Visual Inspection 171 
  • Shock-Absorber or Strut Bounce Test 172
  • Shock-Absorber Manual Test 172 
  • Air Shock Absorber Diagnosis and Replacement 174 
  • Shock Absorber Replacement 174 
  • Diagnosis of Front Spring and Strut Noise 174 
  • Strut Removal and Replacement 176 
  • Removal of Strut from Coil Spring 177 
  • Strut Disposal Procedure 179 
  • Installation of Coil Spring on Strut 179 
  • Installation of Strut-and-Spring Assembly in Vehicle 181 
  • Rear Strut Replacement 183 
  • Installing Strut Cartridge, Off-Car 183 
  • Installing Strut Cartridge, On-Car 184 
  • Diagnosis of Electronically Controlled Shock Absorbers 187 
  • Case Study 188 
  • Terms to Know 189 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 189 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 190 

Chapter 6 

Front Suspension System Service . . . . . . .201 

  • Curb Riding Height Measurement 201 
  • Front Suspension Diagnosis and Service 202
  • Control Arm Diagnosis and Service 213 
  • Removing and Replacing Longitudinally Mounted Torsion Bars 222 
  • Case Study 224 
  • Terms to Know 224 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 225 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 226 

Chapter 7

Rear Suspension Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .235 

  • Lower Control Arm and Ball Joint Diagnosis and Replacement 
  • Rear Leaf-Spring Diagnosis and Replacement 247 
  • Track Bar Diagnosis and Replacement 248 
  • Stabilizer Bar Diagnosis and Service 248 
  • Rear Suspension Tie Rod Inspection and Replacement 250 
  • Case Study 250 
  • Terms to Know 250 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 251 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 252 

Chapter 8

Computer-Controlled Suspension System Service . . . . .259 

  • Preliminary Inspection of Computer-Controlled Suspension Systems 259 
  • Programmed Ride Control System Diagnosis 260 
  • Electronic Air Suspension Diagnosis and Service 261 
  • Servicing and Diagnosing Vehicle Dynamic Suspension Systems 269 
  • Diagnosis of Electronic Suspension Control Systems 274 
  • Scan Tool Diagnosis of Electronic Suspension Control 276 
  • Case Study 284 
  • Terms to Know 285 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 286 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 287 

Chapter 9 

Steering Column and Linkage Diagnosis and Service. .295 

  • Air Bag Deployment Module, Steering Wheel, and Clock Spring Electrical Connector Removal and Replacement 295 
  • Typical Procedure for Removing a Steering Wheel 298 
  • Steering Column Service 300 
  • Steering Column Removal and Replacement 300 
  • Collapsible Steering Column Inspection 301 
  • Tilt Steering-Column Disassembly 302 
  • Tilt Steering-Column Inspection and Parts Replacement 304 
  • Tilt SteeringColumn Assembly 305 
  • Steering-Column Flexible Coupling and Universal Joint Diagnosis and Service 307 
  • Steering-Column Diagnosis 309 
  • Steering Linkage Diagnosis and Service 313 
  • Case Study 321 
  • Terms to Know 321
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 321 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 322 

Chapter 10 

Power Steering Pump Diagnosis and Service . . . .335 

  • Power-Steering Pump Belt Service 335 
  • Power-Steering Pump Fluid Service 338 
  • PowerSteering Pump Diagnosis 340 
  • Power Steering Pump Service 345 
  • Inspecting and Servicing Power Steering Lines and Hoses 348 
  • Power Steering Hose Replacement 349 
  • Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) and Electrohydraulic Power Steering (EHPS) Diagnosing and Servicing Procedures 350 
  • Case Study 358 
  • Terms to Know 358 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 358 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 359 

chpt 11

Recirculating Ball Steering Gear Diagnosis and Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369 

  • Power Recirculating Ball Steering Gear Diagnosis 369 
  • Power-Recirculating Ball Steering Gear Replacement 370 
  • Power-Recirculating Ball Steering Gear Adjustments 371 
  • Power Recirculating Ball Steering Gear Oil Leak Diagnosis 375 
  • PowerRecirculating Ball Steering Gear Seal Replacement 375 
  • Case Study 378 
  • Terms to Know 378 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 378 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 379 

chpt 12 

Rack and Pinion Steering Gear Diagnosis and Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 387 

  • Manual or Power Rack and Pinion Steering Gear On-Car Inspection 387 
  • Manual or Power Rack and Pinion Steering Gear Removal and Replacement 389 
  • Manual-Rack and Pinion Steering Gear Diagnosis and Service 395 
  • Diagnosis of Power Steering, Steering Column, and Suspension Systems 407 
  • Diagnosis of Magnasteer Systems 408 
  • Diagnosisof Rack-Drive Electronic Power Steering 409 
  • Diagnosis ofColumn-Drive Electronic Power Steering 411 
  • Active Steering System Preliminary Diagnosis 414 
  • Case Study 417 
  • Terms to Know 417 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 418 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 419 

chpt 13

Electronic Four-Wheel Steering Diagnosis and Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 

  • Preliminary Inspection 432 
  • Quadrasteer Diagnosis 434 
  • Electronically Controlled Four-Wheel Steering Diagnosis 437 
  • Rear Steering Actuator Service 439 
  • Diagnosis of Four-Wheel Active Steering (4WAS) System 446 
  • Case Study 451 
  • Terms to Know 451 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 452 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 453 

chpt 14

Frame Diagnosis and Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .461 

  • Indications of Frame Damage 461 
  • Frame Diagnosis 461 
  • Checking Frame Alignment 462
  • Measuring Unitized Body Alignment 468 
  • Case Study 474 
  • Terms to Know 474 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 475 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 476 

chpt 15 

Four-Wheel Alignment Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .485 

  • Wheel Alignment Preliminary Diagnosis and Inspection 485 
  • Four-Wheel Alignment with Computer Alignment Systems 491 
  • Wheel Alignment Screens 497 
  • Adjustment Screens 502
  • Diagnostic Drawing and Text Screens 506 
  • Checking Toe Change and Steering Linkage Height 508 
  • Bent Front Strut Diagnosis 510 
  • Case Study 511 
  • Terms to Know 511
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 512 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 513

chpt 16 

Four-Wheel Alignment Adjustments. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .523 

  • Wheel Alignment Procedure 523 
  • Camber Adjustment 524 
  • Caster Adjustment Procedure 531
  • Setback Measurement and Correction Procedure 534 
  • Steering Axis Inclination (SAI) Correction Procedure 537 
  • Toe Adjustment 537 
  • Manual Steering Wheel Centering Procedure 539 
  • Causes of Improper Rear Wheel Alignment 541 
  • Rear Suspension Adjustments 541 
  • Rear Wheel Tracking Measurement with a Track Gauge 547 
  • Case Study 552 
  • Terms to Know 554 
  • ASE-Style Review Questions 555 
  • ASE Challenge Questions 556 

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