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Cybersecurity Best Practices for Modern Vehicles

Cybersecurity Best Practices for Modern Vehicles

This document describes the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration’s non-binding guidance to the automotive industry for improving motor vehicle cybersecurity.

Table of Contents

1 Purpose of This Document………………………………………………………………………………………………… 5

2 Scope………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

3 Background……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

4 Definitions……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 8

5 General Cybersecurity Guidance……………………………………………………………………………………….. 10

5.1 Layered Approach …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 10

5.2 Information Technology Security Controls ………………………………………………………………………. 11

6 Automotive Industry Cybersecurity Guidance…………………………………………………………………….. 12

6.1 Vehicle Development Process With Explicit Cybersecurity Considerations…………………………. 12

6.2 Leadership Priority on Product Cybersecurity …………………………………………………………………. 12

6.3 Information Sharing ………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 13

6.4 Vulnerability Reporting/Disclosure Policy ……………………………………………………………………….. 14

6.5 Vulnerability / Exploit / Incident Response Process………………………………………………………….. 14

6.6 Self-Auditing ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

6.6.1 Risk Assessment ……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 15

6.6.2 Penetration Testing and Documentation ……………………………………………………………………… 16

6.6.3 Self-Review ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 16

6.7 Fundamental Vehicle Cybersecurity Protections …………………………………………………………….. 17

6.7.1 Limit Developer/Debugging Access in Production Devices ……………………………………………. 17

6.7.2 Control Keys …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 17

6.7.3 Control Vehicle Maintenance Diagnostic Access………………………………………………………….. 17

6.7.4 Control Access to Firmware ………………………………………………………………………………………. 18

6.7.5 Limit Ability to Modify Firmware …………………………………………………………………………………. 18

6.7.6 Control Proliferation of Network Ports, Protocols and Services …………………………………….. 19

6.7.7 Use Segmentation and Isolation Techniques in Vehicle Architecture

Design ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 19

6.7.8 Control Internal Vehicle Communications ……………………………………………………………………. 19

6.7.9 Log Events………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

6.7.10 Control Communication to Back-End Servers…………………………………………………………….. 20

6.7.11 Control Wireless Interfaces……………………………………………………………………………………….. 20

7 Education ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

8 Aftermarket Devices ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 20

9 Serviceability ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 21


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