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Permanent magnet synchronous motor construction


In the realm of electric motors, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors (PMSMs) stand out for their efficiency, reliability, and adaptability across a wide range of speeds.

This blog post will explore the diverse types of PMSMs, delve into their unique construction features, and unravel the working principles that make them a driving force in various applications.

Types of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor

1. Surface-mounted PMSM

This type of PMSM features magnets located on the rotor surface, facing outward. The construction simplifies manufacturing and maintenance, making it suitable for various applications, from household appliances to industrial machinery.

2. Interior Permanent Magnet (IPM) PMSM

In IPM PMSMs, magnets are embedded within the rotor core, enhancing torque density and overall performance. This design is commonly employed in electric vehicles and high-performance servo systems.

3. V-Shaped PMSM

The V-shaped configuration involves arranging magnets in a V shape on the rotor. This design optimizes torque production and is often found in applications demanding high power density and efficiency.

The picture is shown the Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor classification according to the design of the rotor and classification depending on the stator design.

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Construction

Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Construction

Understanding the construction of PMSMs is crucial to appreciate their functioning. Let’s break down the key components:

1. Stator

The stator is the stationary part of the motor and consists of windings connected to the power supply. When electric current flows through these windings, it generates a rotating magnetic field.

2. Rotor

The rotor, or armature, is the rotating part containing permanent magnets. The interaction between the stator’s magnetic field and the rotor’s magnets produces torque, resulting in the motor’s rotation.

3. Permanent Magnets

PMSMs utilize high-strength permanent magnets, such as neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets, to create a powerful magnetic field within the rotor. This enhances motor efficiency and performance.

4. Hall Effect Sensors

Many PMSMs incorporate Hall effect sensors to provide feedback on the rotor’s position. This information is crucial for precise control and commutation of the motor.

There are designs with two-phase or three-phase winding.

Permanent magnet synchronous motor Working principle

The operation of PMSMs is based on synchronous rotation between the stator’s magnetic field and the rotor’s magnets. Here’s a step-by-step breakdown of the working principle:

1. Power Supply:

The stator windings are connected to a three-phase AC power supply.

2. Magnetic Field Generation:

The AC power induces a rotating magnetic field in the stator.

3. Rotor Magnet Interaction:

The permanent magnets on the rotor are attracted and aligned with the rotating magnetic field, causing the rotor to follow the field’s rotation.

4. Torque Production:

The continuous interaction between the stator’s magnetic field and the rotor’s magnets produces a torque, driving the rotor’s rotation.

5. Feedback and Control:

Hall effect sensors provide real-time feedback on the rotor’s position, enabling precise control of the motor’s speed and direction.


Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors are versatile and efficient solutions for various applications, ranging from electric vehicles to industrial machinery.

By understanding the different types, construction details, and working principles, engineers and enthusiasts alike can appreciate the sophistication behind these powerful electric motors.

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