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Modern Automotive Technology: Everything You Must Know (A to Z) Part 2

Figure 1-21. It is a hollow metal tube with two or more universal (swivel) joints. 

The universal joints allow the rear suspension to move up and down without damaging the drive shaft.


PART 01 – Modern Automotive Technology: Everything You Must Know (A to Z) Part 1

Modern Automotive Technology: Everything You Must Know (A to Z) Part 1

Rear Axle Assembly

The rear axle assembly contains a differential and two axles. 

The differential is a set of gears and shafts that transmits power from the driveshaft to the axles. 

The axles are steel shafts that connect the differential and drive wheels, Figure 1-21. 

The-drive-shaft-sends-power-to-the-rear-axle-assembly. The rear axle assembly contains the differential and two axles that turn the rear drive wheels
Figure 1-21.

The drive shaft sends power to the rear axle assembly. The rear axle assembly contains the differential and two axles that turn the rear drive wheels. (Lexus)


READ: SIMPLE EXPLAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SHAFT AND AXLE

SIMPLE EXPLAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SHAFT AND AXLE

Transaxle 

The transaxle consists of a transmission and a differential in a single housing.

Although a few rear-wheel-drive vehicles are equipped with transaxles, they are most commonly used with front-wheel-drive vehicles, Figure 1-22. Both manual and automatic transaxles are available.

The internal parts of a modern transaxle assembly are illustrated in Figure 1-23. 

Front Drive Axles

The front-drive axles connect the transaxle differential to the hubs and wheels of the vehicle. 

These axles are equipped with constant-velocity joints, which allow the front wheels to be turned to the left or right and to move up and down.

Front-wheel-drive-vehicles-do-not-have-a-drive-shaft-or-a-rear-drive-axle-assembly. The complete drive train is in the front of the vehicle
Figure 1-22

Front-wheel-drive vehicles do not have a driveshaft or a rear-drive axle assembly. 

The complete drive train is in the front of the vehicle. (Ford) 

A-transaxle-contains-a-transmission-and-a-differ--ential-in-one-housing
Figure 1-23

A transaxle contains a transmission and a differential in one housing. (Ford) 

Suspension, Steering, and Brake Systems

The suspension, steering, and brake systems are the movable parts of the chassis. 

They bolt or anchor to the frame and provide important functions that will be explained in the following sections.

Suspension System

The suspension system allows the vehicle’s wheels and tires to move up and down with little effect on body movement. 

This makes the vehicle’s ride smooth and safe. The suspension system also prevents excessive body lean when turning corners quickly. 

As you can see in Figure 1-24, various springs, bars, swivel joints, and arms make up the suspension system.

Read more about suspension

Steering System 

The steering system allows the driver to control vehicle direction by turning the wheels right or left. 

It uses a series of gears, swivel joints, and rods to do this. Study the names of the parts in Figure 1-24. 

The-suspension-and-steering-systems-mount-on-the-frame. Study the part names
Figure 1-24

 The suspension and steering systems mount on the frame. Study the part names. (Saab-Scania) 


Read: HOW POWER STEERING WORKS?

How Power Steering Works?
Electric vs Hydraulic Power Steering

Read More:

A Quick Guide to Diagnosing 10 Common Steering Issues
A Quick Guide to Diagnosing 10 Common Steering Issues

Brake System

The brake system produces friction to slow or stop the vehicle. When the driver presses the brake pedal, fluid pressure actuates a brake mechanism at each wheel. 

These mechanisms force friction material (brake pads or shoes) against metal discs or drums to slow wheel rotation. Figure 1-25 shows the fundamental parts of a brake system.

More About Braking Systems


What's the difference between brake shoes and brake pads?
WHAT’S THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BRAKE SHOES AND BRAKE PADS?

Accessory and Safety Systems

Common accessory systems include the air conditioner, sound system, power seats, power windows, and rear window defogger. 

Common safety systems include seat belts, airbags, and security systems.

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